Apart from metal fabrication, metals are also shaped through the process of metal forming. This is the process where metals are formed into desirable shapes while in their solid-state. Every metal has its plasticity property, or the ability of an object to be molded or shaped. Plasticity allows the shaping of metal into the desired shape while being solid in form. In metal forming, there is no need for melting, thus avoiding the risks of dealing with molten metal.
There are two main ways of metal forming; hot working and cold working. As the name suggests, hot working reforms metal in a higher temperature or above the metal recrystallization temperature, while cold works are below the temperature. Hot-working makes metal easier to reshape making the metal more ductile. Some advantages of hot working include more stretching for the metal than cold work since it's easier to reshape heated metal. Also, hot working allows the metal to keep or enhance its ductility. However, rougher surfaces can be seen in hot work.
Any metal forming below the metal recrystallization point is called cold working. This requires more energy to form the metal but makes stronger metal forms. Even with minimum supervision, the end product has a smoother surface. Through strain hardening, the metal gains more strength. However, since it requires more energy to form metal through cold works, it is difficult to deform metal again compared to hot work. Metal recrystallization points differ from one another so hot or cold work for each metal varies from their temperature.
The factor to consider in creating a finished product of metal forming is the bulk(or bars) and sheet (or plate). In bulk metal forming deals with low volume and a low ratio of surface area. Bulk metal forming includes techniques on rolling, forging, casting, drawing, and extrusions.
Rolling passes metal stocks into rollers and shapes the metal into the sheet, strips, or rail. The result is a high-strength metal of no scrap.
Forging makes use of the hammer and other compression tools. This results in cold-headed parts and is often used for the automotive and aerospace industry.
Extrusion, a metal stock goes through a die and the result is a cross-section to the die. Hollow shapes are formed.
Casting, molten metal is dripped into a mold or die.
Drawing involves pulling the metal stock as compared to extrusion where it is pulled.
Another manufacturing process includes sheet metal forming, where high surface area metals are used. Techniques involved are shearing, stamping, deep drawing, and bending.
Deep Drawing, like drawing in hot works, results in same the height and wider size. Fit for fast production.
Stamping, indents are made in the metal stock through pressing. Fit for high volume in a shorter time.
Bending, a linear axis is used to reform the metal while surrounding it. Uses a press brake and has less residual stress.
Afar from the processes and techniques involved in metal forming, there are specific tools needed as well. These are presses, benders, roll forming machines, dies, extruders, and drawing machines.
Some common applications made by metal forming are tubes, pipes, wires, and metal sheets. Even those at our houses like file drawers, roof parts, decorative moldings, and thumbtacks are made of metal forming. The majority of industry uses metal forming, especially in the automotive and aerospace industries.
Our 15 years of dedication and development in Yongu in the aluminum industry have allowed us to perfect how we form our metal. We have developed ways to make sure that each of our metals is formed in the most efficient way and only the best tools available. We use die casting and extrusion tools to further enhance the properties of aluminum. To know more about our aluminum products, visit our website and let us know what you need.